OPE1 – Large-scale open testbeds and experiments

Wednesday, 7 June 2023, 11:00-12:30, Room R24-R25

Session Chair: Jacob G Snyder (Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

5GAIner: Taking the Verticals into the 5G Road
José Quevedo (Instituto de Telecomunicações & Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal); André Perdigão (Instituto de Telecomunicações and Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal); David Santos and Rui Silva (Instituto de Telecomunicações & Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal); Rui L Aguiar (University of Aveiro & Instituto de Telecomunicações, Portugal)
Every new mobile communication generation comes with the emergence of novel applications and services. The fifthgeneration (5G) is not an exception, its increased performance and flexibility are expected to provide support for a plethora of utilization scenarios, where the network can be tailored, in runtime, to the particular requirements of each use case. In particular, 5G is gaining the attention of different vertical industries as an enabler of Industry 4.0. However, adopting these technologies requires novel business models for delivering communication services. Moreover, 5G deployments are still in early stages, with novel functionalities expected to gradually emerge over the next few years. The 5GAIner laboratory provides a 5G experimentation environment for the different stakeholders taking part in the 5G ecosystem. The goal is to facilitate vertical markets’ digital transition to 5G by providing an environment for easy innovation, development, and experimentation. In this context, the paper describes the existing infrastructure, provides some initial performance results, summarises the learned lessons, and outlines the expected evolution path.

Digitalization in the Aquaculture Industry: Validation Trials over a Commercial 5G Network
Jane Frances Pajo (Telenor Research and Innovation, Norway); Mari Haukø and Rakel Skaret-Thoresen (SEALAB AS, Norway); Andres Gonzalez (Telenor Norge AS, Norway); Per H. Lehne (Telenor Research, Norway); Ole Grøndalen (Telenor, Norway)
The aquaculture industry has a goal of automating as much as possible to minimize cost and improve product quality. Cameras and environmental sensors are extensively used to monitor the fish farming sites, and generate huge amounts of data. 5G technology is seen as an enabler to further improve efficiency and digitize the fish farming industry. In this work, the combination of 5G, Device Edge, Cloud and Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been tested to evaluate the benefits and limitations of 5G technology in aquaculture. By emulating a typical Norwegian Atlantic salmon farm, remote monitoring, feeding decision support using AI for pellet detection, and 5G performance has been assessed. Peak uplink data rate is the most important key performance indicator, due to the large amount of data produced in the farm itself. To reduce the uplink requirements, a Device Edge has been deployed for running AI-driven pellet detection. Results show that operating full video coverage both underwater and for surveillance clearly exceeds the offered uplink data rate of a typical 5G base station operating in the C-band. Video compression can only be used to a mild extent, due to early deterioration of the pellet detection precision. Therefore, the use of a Device Edge to avoid uplink transmission of the video streams seems to be a better solution. Latency has not been critical in the scenario investigated, however introduction of remote control of cameras and feed provision might change this.

Advanced 5G Open Testbed for Network Applications Experiments
Marius Iordache and Razvan Mihai (Orange, Romania); Cristian Patachia – Sultanoiu (Orange Romania SA & Technical University Gheorghe Asachi of Iasi, Romania); Juan Brenes (Nextworks, Italy); Athina Ropodi and Aristotelis Margaris (Incelligent PC, Greece); George Suciu (Politehnica University of Bucharest & BEIA Consult International SRL, Romania); Alexandru Vulpe (University Politehnica of Bucharest & Beam Innovation SRL, Romania); Nina Slamnik-Krijestorac (University of Antwerp-IMEC, Belgium); Andreas Gavrielides (eBOS Technologies Limited, Cyprus); Eleni Giannopoulou (WINGS ICT Solutions & National Technical University of Athens, Greece)
5G Stand Alone (SA) networks are starting to be considered, designed and implemented in multiple countries in various forms (public, private, experimental). 5G SA networks mass adoption is expected to materialize by 2025. Mass deployment is anticipated at a large scale, due to the rich features and capabilities offered by 5G networks, including but not limited to slicing, service orchestration and automation, bringing the benefits of 5G among industry stakeholders and verticals. The concept of Network Applications is gaining momentum, as a way to ease the process of deploying industry-specific services and applications and to integrate them seamlessly with the new 5G networks and customer-specific application components. We target deploying and operating the novel 5G SA testbeds, Network Application and related capabilities in different T&L facilities across Europe. We envision the architectural advancement in terms of 5G features, such as orchestration, multi-slice implementation, Quality of Service (QoS)/Quality of Experience (QoE) and an innovative end-to-end monitoring framework, for network and application KPIs. In this paper, 5G open testbed advancements (3GPP Rel. 16 compliant) and readiness for Network Application experiments in real-life scenarios are presented, integrated as a unitary whole within the EU-funded VITAL-5G project.

Comparing 5G Network Latency Utilizing Native Security Algorithms
Jacob G Snyder, Lucas M Hoffer, Bryan Martin, Darren J Rogers and Vikram Kanth (Naval Postgraduate School, USA)
While Fifth Generation (5G) wireless technology promises higher data throughput rates and reduced latency in comparison to previous generations of cellular communications, the addition of encryption between communicating nodes presents potential overhead costs to the system in terms of increased processing time, thereby leading to an increase in network latency. Given that modern Internet of Things (IoT) and Industry 4.0 5G use cases both require exceptional network speed coupled with security, the choice of security algorithms is a critical element. This paper offers a live 5G testbed setup and methodology to analyze measured round trip times between a user device and a 5G network-in-a-box using the four native 128- bit ciphering algorithms as specified by current Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) telecommunications standards. We perform these tests using the Amarisoft AMARI Callbox Mini, a 3GPP- compliant 5G network. Our initial findings show there is no statistically significant relationship between enabled ciphering algorithms and latency given one user device and the 5G network core within the Amarisoft 5G ecosystem, though our setup and methodology allow for expanding this research with multiple
devices and longer experiment durations to understand how to best balance network latency and security requirements in a complex wireless network.

Simulation of Data Hijacking Attacks for a 5G-Advanced Core Network
Seungchan Woo and Jaehyoung Park (Protocol Engineering Lab., Sejong University, Korea (South)); Soonhong Kwon (Sejong University, Korea (South)); Kyungmin Park (Electronics and Telecommucations Institute, Korea (South)); Jonghyun Kim (ETRI, Korea (South)); Jong-Hyouk Lee (Sejong University, Korea (South))
The 5G mobile communication technology provides a faster transmission speed, larger bandwidth, and the ability to connect a greater number of devices than 4G. However, ensuring the successful transition to 5G-Advanced requires addressing various security vulnerabilities and threats. It is imperative in 5G- advanced and higher mobile communications to address the security risks that have arisen in current mobile communication systems. In this paper, we perform a simulation of scenario-based data hijacking attacks for a 5G-Advanced core network. The conducted simulation results demonstrate that two different data hijacking attacks are possible, with sensitive information being vulnerable to exploitation through security weaknesses such as the lack of encryption for internal communication and inadequate authentication of internal components in the 5G-Advanced core network.

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