AIU3  – Factory Automation and V2X Solutions

Thursday, 8 June 2023, 11:00-12:30, Room R22-R23

Session Chair: Timo Sukuvaara (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland)

Piloting and Evaluation of 5G-Enabled Road Safety and Cybersecurity Services
Tiia Ojanperä and Johan Scholliers (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland); Timo Sukuvaara (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland); Anastasia Yastrebova-Castillo (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Finland); Topi Miekkala (VTT Technical Researh Centre of Finland, Finland); Pasi Pyykönen (VTT, Finland); Kari Mäenpää (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland); Iiro Salkari (Vaisala, Finland); Juha Laakso (Arctic Machine, Finland); Oiva Huuskonen (Destia, Finland); Hongwen Zhang and Husam Kinawi (Wedge Networks Inc., Canada); Harri Nyrhinen (Unikie, Finland); Pekka Eloranta (Sitowise, Finland)
Recent advancements in wireless communication, distributed computing, and sensing technologies, as well as in cybersecurity are enabling new digital services and solutions for vehicles and other road users. Digital road safety services can help to improve road safety and optimize road maintenance, and to enable automated vehicles in road traffic, especially, in challenging road and weather conditions. This paper presents the progress towards experimentation and piloting of four road safety -focused use cases and their underlying technical enablers. The paper also introduces the approach used for experimentation and piloting, using real 5G networks, vehicles, and sensor systems, as well as presents selected results. The work and results presented in this paper attest the feasibility and benefits of the developed services and technological solutions in improving road safety

Mobile RF Scenario Design for Massive-Scale Wireless Channel Emulators
Riccardo Rusca, Claudio E. Casetti, Paolo Giaccone and Francesco Raviglione (Politecnico di Torino, Italy); Francesco Restuccia (Northeastern University, USA)
Large-scale wireless emulation is gaining momentum nowadays, thanks to its potential in the development and deployment of advanced use cases for next-generation wireless networks. Several novel use cases are indeed emerging, including massive MIMO, millimeter wave beamforming and AI-based Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) optimized communication. The development and testing of a wireless application, especially at a large scale and when dealing with mobile nodes, faces several challenges that cannot be solved by simulation frameworks alone. Thus, massive-scale channel emulators are emerging, enabling the emulation of realistic scenarios which leverage real hardware and radio signals. However, this is a complex task due to the lack of realistic scenarios based on real datasets. We thus propose a novel framework for the design and generation of channel emulation scenarios starting from real mobility traces, either generated by means of dedicated tools, or collected on the field. Our framework provides a practical way of generating mobility scenarios with vehicles, pedestrians, drones and other mobile entities. We detail all the steps foreseen by our framework, from the provision of the traces and radio parameters, to the generation of a matrix describing the delay and IQ samples for each time instant and node in the scenario. We also showcase the potentiality of our proposal by designing and creating a vehicular 5G scenario with 13 vehicles, starting from a recently-disclosed open dataset. This scenario is then validated on the Colosseum channel emulator, proving how our framework can provide an effective tool for large-scale wireless networking evaluation.

Validation of Cloud-Controlled Autonomous Mobile Robots in a Real Semiconductor Plant
Norbert Reider (Ericsson Research, Budapest, Hungary); Gábor Németh and Sandor Rácz (Ericsson Research, Hungary); Marcell Balogh, Attila Vidács and Gabor Feher (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary); Davit Harutyunyan (Bosch, Germany); Peter Buseck and Andreas Hohner (Bosch Semiconductor Plant, Germany)
This paper gives a detailed outline of the trial and the validation of cloud-controlled collaborative mobile robots applied in a real semiconductor factory of Bosch in Reutlingen, Germany. Two Autonomous Mobile Robots (AMRs) are controlled from the cloud over a 5G Standalone (SA) private network deployed inside the plant. We describe the methodology adopted to validate and evaluate this use case, using the industry goals set by the factory management to understand how much each industry goal is affected by the usage of 5G and cloud technologies. We then present the test results of the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in various validation scenarios executed in the operational factory. Finally, we demonstrate that 5G technology is ready to be used for the considered industrial application.

Reliable Sensor Data Gathering with Bluetooth Mesh: An Experimental Study
Hasan Qaq (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway); Omkar Kulkarni (Nordic Semiconductor, Norway); Yuming Jiang (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway)
Bluetooth mesh is a recent addition to the IoT connectivity landscape. It provides a simple and efficient shortrange wireless mesh networking solution. This paper evaluates the performance of a Bluetooth mesh-based IoT sensor data gathering network in a real-world office environment. It provides suggestions to improve the reliability of the data gathering process. Specifically, the effect of various Bluetooth mesh protocol-related and non-protocol-related parameters is evaluated. The protocolrelated parameters explored in this paper include the Publish Retransmit Count (PRC), the Network Transmit Count (NTC), and the Relay Retransmit Count (RRC). The non-protocolrelated parameters include the packet-sending randomization interval and the packet payload redundancy. Through extensive experiments, the results show that a high degree of reliability, 99%, can be achieved with a combined use of these parameters. These results provide insights and shed light on configuring a Bluetooth mesh network to achieve high reliability for sensor data gathering.

On Assessing the Potential of 5G and Beyond for Enhancing Automated Barge Control
Nina Slamnik-Krijestorac (University of Antwerp-IMEC, Belgium); Wim Vandenberghe (Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat, The Netherlands); Najmeh Masoudi-Dione and Stijn Van Staeyen (Seafar, Belgium); Xiangyu Lian (Telenet, Belgium); Rakshith Kusumakar (V-TRON, The Netherlands); Johann M. Marquez-Barja (University of Antwerpen & imec, Belgium)
As the shipping sector has been one of the major impact factors on economic growth over the past decades, its digitalization is expected to make unprecedented improvements in the safety and reliability of ship control, thereby ultimately enabling the autonomous operations of ships. The automated control of ships will not only mitigate the risks of human mistakes but will also improve the efficiency of operations by preventing unexpected delays while being environmentally sustainable. With the advent of the Internet of Ships (IoS) sector, well-known and mature concepts of the Internet of Things (IoT) are being applied to ships and ports, thereby making them more and more equipped with sensing and communication capabilities that set the ground for improved situational awareness and better decisionmaking. However, there are many challenges that need to be thoroughly studied, such as the communication between barges, ports, and services, as increased network latency and limitations on the bandwidth imposed by satellite communications could introduce significant risks for accident occurrence, ultimately affecting the overall automated operation/teleoperation of barges. In this paper, we present one of the first attempts to test the potential of 5G systems for automating barge operations, starting from teleoperation as an enabler of automation, thereby creating and validating a cellular-based automated barge control system in a real-life environment. In this system, the barge is sailing in a busy port area such as one of the Port of Antwerp Bruges, while being connected to the 5G network. We assess the quality of the 5G communication system and present and discuss our initial results on the enhancements that 5G could bring to teleoperation and automation of the barge control.

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