Tutorial 3: The 5G path of V2X for the future of connected and autonomous vehicles

  • Monday, 12 June 2017 (room to be defined)



  • Claudia Campolo (University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Italy)
  • Antonella Molinaro (University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Italy)
  • Antoine O. Berthet (CentraleSupélec, France)


Motivation and Context

Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication is a key enabler for safer, greener, more connected and autonomous transport. After more than a decade of huge research and investments, V2X technology is ready today. The IEEE 802.11 is the standard access technology for vehicular networking, with worldwide field-trials demonstrating its feasibility for “day-one” applications (e.g., emergency brake light, stationary vehicle warning) and with rulemaking started, basically in US. In the meanwhile, the role of 3GPP and cellular networks has been steadily and rapidly growing. Started with the support of telematics and infotainment services for connected cars, cellular networks are now noticeably involved at a much wider scope, with V2X as part of 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) Release 14 (next release expected by March 2017), and a with clear roadmap for 5G networks to provide the ultra-high reliability and ultra-low latency demands of tomorrow V2X applications (e.g., autonomous driving). The growing interest in V2X by the research and industrial communities is witnessed by a plenty of initiatives. The most recent one is the formation of the 5G Automotive Association (5GAA), on Sept. 28, 2016, by the major automobile manufacturers and ICT players, with the aim to promote interoperable end-to-end solutions for cellular V2X, based on 5G and the enhancement of LTE. The automotive vertical market is an undoubted key driver for 5G systems. The tutorial will present the status quo of V2X-related research, development and standardization activities; the lessons learnt after decades of work with DSRC/WAVE and ETSI ITS technologies; the key challenges and opportunities opened by cellular-based V2X for a new generation of connected cars that incorporate the latest ICT advancements (e.g., software-defined networking and virtualization) and represent a prime stage for deployment and refinement of cutting-edge technologies for 5G networks.



Structure and Content

First, the milestones that have contributed to shape today's available standards for Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITS) will be discussed. Focus will be on the Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) – and related IEEE Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE) – and on the European Telecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI) Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) standards, both sharing the choice of IEEE 802.11 as access layer technology. Field-test results for a set of relatively simple day-one applications and running initiatives to test autonomous driving worldwide will be presented. 802.11-related constraints and challenges associated to after-day-one applications support will be dissected along with technical solutions under discussion in relevant research and standardization groups and results achieved by the presenters. Then, the tutorial will elaborate on the role of cellular networks as alternative and/or complementary technology for V2X services support. Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) enhancements for V2X communications and relevant design options will be presented, as under discussion in LTE Release 14, along with the most significant results from the literature and running projects, as well as achieved by the presenters. Focus will be on the roadmap to support enhanced V2X (eV2X) services in 5G networks, hence beyond Rel. 14, e.g., to bring high-rate services seamlessly to users in vehicles in a dense urban environment, to enable autonomous and tele-operated driving with ultra-low latency (e.g., 1 ms) and ultra-high reliability (about 100%) requirements, and to support vehicular Internet and infotainment. The heterogeneity of V2X use cases will foster the need of customization of radio access network (RAN) and core network (CN) functionalities through 5G network slicing concepts, which will also be covered by the tutorial. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV) will play a crucial role. Although the tutorial will draw the future of vehicular communications as a mashup of 802.11 and 5G, in order to complete the picture a final look will be also provided on the use of other physical layer media (e.g., mmWave, visible light), other transceiver technologies (e.g., full-duplex) and their impact on the performance of MAC and application layers. Preliminary results achieved by the speakers on the use of full-duplex technologies for V2X (e.g., to improve platooning performance) will be presented.


Section 1 – Introduction and V2X basics

  • Fundamentals and motivations of V2X communications
  • The roadmap of vehicular applications: from cooperative safety to autonomous driving
  • Message sets: from local awareness to environmental awareness to collective awareness
  • Worldwide R&D and regulation initiatives: from Google car to autonomous platoons

Section 2 – IEEE 802.11-based V2X

  • Dedicated spectrum allocation at 5GHz
  • DSRC/WAVE vs. ETSI ITS architecture
  • Single-radio and dual-radio transceiver design and configurations
  • Multi-channel MAC operation: managing co-channel and adjacent channel interference
  • Keeping congestion under control (the decentralized congestion control)
  • Open issues and lessons learnt from simulations, analytics and field trials

Section 3 – 3GPP and V2X services

  • 3GPP V2X use cases and spectrum options
  • Cellular V2X: from LTE Release 12 to Release 14 and beyond
  • Evolving the PC5 interface: scheduled and autonomous mode
  • Evolving the LTE-Uu interface: unicast and multicast (eMBMS) mode
  • 5G roadmap and eV2X use cases
  • Software-defined networking (SDN) and virtualization for V2X
  • 5G network slicing for V2X

Section 4 – A look beyond

  • Non-technical issues to solve for the V2X take off
  • Other physical layers: visible light (VLC) and millimeter wave (mmWave) communication
  • Other transceiver design: the impact of full-duplex technologies and preliminary results